Wednesday, April 18, 2018

Automotive Embedded Systems Handbook Edited by Nicolas Navet and Françoise Simonot-Lion

Automotive Embedded Systems Handbook Edited by Nicolas Navet and Françoise Simonot-Lion
Part I Automotive Architectures
Part II Embedded Communications
Part III Embedded Software and Development Processes
Part IV Verification, Testing, and Timing Analysis
The objective of the Automotive Embedded Systems Handbook is to provide a com prehensive overview about existing and future automotive electronic systems. The distinctive features of the automotive world in terms of requirements, technologies, and business models are highlighted and state-of-the-art methodological andtechnical solutions are presented in the following areas:
• In-vehicle architectures
• Multipartner development processes (subsystem integration, product linemanagement, etc.)
• Software engineering methods
• Embedded communications
• Safety and dependability assessment: validation, verification, and testing The book is aimed primarily at automotive engineering professionals, as it can serve as a reference for technical matters outside their field of expertise and at practicing or studying engineers, in general. On the other hand, it also targets research scientists, PhD students, and MSc students from the academia as it provides them with a comprehensive introduction to the field and to the main scientific challenges in this
domain.Over the last ?? years, there has been an exponential increase in the number of computer-based functions embedded in vehicles. Development processes, techniques, and tools have changed to accommodate that evolution. A whole range of electronic functions, such as navigation, adaptive control, traffic information, traction control, stabilization control, and active safety systems, are implemented in today’s vehicles. Many of these new functions are not stand-alone in the sense that they need to exchange information—and sometimes with stringent time constraints—with other functions. For example, the vehicle speed estimated by the engine controller or by wheel rotation sensors needs to be known in order to adapt the steering effort, to control the suspension, or simply to choose the right wiper speed. The complexity of the embedded architecture is continually increasing. Today, up to ???? signals (i.e., elementary information such as the speed of the vehicle) are exchanged through up to ?? electronic control units (ECUs) on five different types of networks. One of the main challenges of the automotive industry is to come up with methods and tools to facilitate the integration of different electronic subsystems coming from various suppliers into the vehicle’s global electronic architecture. In the last ?? years, several industry-wide projects have been undertaken in that direction (AEE?, EAST, AUTOSAR, OSEK/VDX, etc.) and significant results have already been achieved (e.g., standard components such as operating systems, networks and middleware, “good practices,” etc.). The next step is to build an accepted open software architecture, as well as the associated development processes and tools, which should allow for easily integrating the different functions and ECUs provided by carmakers and third-part suppliers. This is ongoing work in the context of the AUTOSAR project. As all the functions embedded in cars do not have the same performance or safety needs, different qualities of service are expected from the different subsystems. Typically, an in-car embedded system is divided into several functional domains that correspond to different features and constraints. Two of them are concerned specifically with real time control and safety in the vehicle’s behavior: the “power train” (i.e., control of engine and transmission) and the “chassis” (i.e., control of suspension, steering, and braking) domains. For these safety-critical domains, the technical solutions must ensure that the system is dependable (i.e., able to deliver a service that can be justifiably trusted) while being cost-effective at the same time. These technical problems are very challenging, in particular due to the introduction of X-by-wire functions, which replace the mechanical or hydraulic systems, such as braking or steering, with electronic systems. Design paradigms (time-triggered, “safety by construction”), communication networks (FlexRay, TTP/C), and middle ware layers (AUTOSAR COM) are currently being actively developed in order toaddress these needs for dependability.
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