Monday, April 30, 2018


Chapter 1:Introduction.
Chapter 2:Thermodynamic Principles of
The Combined-Cycle Plant .
Chapter 3:System Layouts ..
Chapter 4:Combined-Cycle Plants for Cogeneration 
Chapter 5:Components .
Chapter 6:Control and Automation
Chapter 7:Operating and Part-Load Behavior .
Chapter 8:Comparison of The Combined-Cycle PlantWith Other Thermal Power Stations.
Chapter9:Environmental Considerations .
Chapter 10:Developmental Trends.
Chapter 11:Some Typical Combined-Cycle Plants Already Built .
Chapter 12:Conclusions
The literature has often suggested combining two or more ther mal cycles within a single power plant. In all cases, the inten tion was to increase efficiency over that of single cycles. Thermal
processes can be combined in this way whether they operate with the same or with differing working media. However, a com bination of cycles with different working media is more inter esting because their advantages can complement one another. Normally the cycles can be classed as a ''topping'' and a ''bot toming" cycle. The first cycle, to which most of the heat is sup plied, is called the "topping cycle." The waste heat it produces is then utilized in a second process which operates at a lower temperature level and is therefore referred to as a "bottoming cycle." Careful selection of the working media makes it possible to create an overall process that makes optimum thermodynamic use of the heat in the upper range of temperatures and returns waste heat to the environment at as low a temperature level as possible. Normally the ''topping'' and ''bottoming'' cycles are coupled in a heat exchanger. Up to the present time, only one combined cycle has found wide acceptance: the combination gas turbine/steam turbine power plant. So far, plants of this type have burned generally fossil fuels (principally-liquid fuels or gases.) It therefore is quite reasonable to use the steam process for the "bottoming cycle.'' That such combination gas turbine/steam turbine power plants were not more widely used even earlier has clearly been due to the historical development of the gas turbine. Only in recent years have gas turbines attained inlet temperatures that make it possible to design a very high efficiency cycle. Today, however, the installed power capacity of combined-cycle gas turbine/steam turbine power plants world wide world totals more than 30,000 MW.
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