Sunday, April 29, 2018

Wet-Steam Turbines for Nuclear Power Plants by Alexander S. Leyzerovich

Wet-Steam Turbines for Nuclear Power Plants by Alexander S. Leyzerovich
Contents:
1. The Nuclear Power Industry at the Turn of the 21st Century
2. The Thermal Process in Wet-Steam Turbines
3. Design
4. Operation
5. Refurbishment
Preface:
The first kilowatt-hours of electricity from nuclear energy were produced on December 20, 1951, in the United States by a steam turbine generator fed with steam from Experimental Breeder Reac tor-I (EBR-I). The turbine had a rated output of 200 kW and initial steam conditions of 2.8 MPa and 220ºC (405 psi, 429ºF). In 1953, tests began at the shore-based prototype of a steam-turbine unit for the first nuclear-powered U.S. submarine, the Nautilus, and in 1954, the Soviet Union launched the first experimental nuclear power installation, with a rated output of 5 MW. The first commercial power generating unit with a nuclear reactor as a steam supply source was placed in service in 1957 at Shippingport.1 The Westinghouse turbine of this unit was designed for a rotation speed of 1,800 rpm and a maximum capability rating of 100 MW. It was fed with saturated dry steam, with the inlet steam pressure varying from 3.8 MPa (545 psi) at the maximum load to 5.9 MPa (850 psi) when the reactor was at idle. As shown in Figure 1–1, the turbine was a single-cylinder, single
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