Tuesday, May 1, 2018

Blade Design and Analysis for Steam Turbines by Murari P. Singh, Ph.D. George M. Lucas, PE

Blade Design and Analysis for Steam Turbines by Murari P. Singh, Ph.D. George M. Lucas, PE
1 Introduction
2 Steam Turbine Design Process, Performance Estimation, and Determination of Blade Loads
3 Turbine Blade Construction, Materials, and Manufacture
4 System of Stress and Damage Mechanisms
5 Review of Fundamentals of Vibration
6 Damping Concepts
7 Vibration Behavior of Bladed Disk System
8 Reliability Evaluation for Blade Design
9 Life Assessment Aspects for Blade
10 Estimation of Risk
11 Summary
Turbine engineers and designers have made remarkable improvements in the efficiency and reliability of industrial steam turbines over the last 30 years. Remarkable improvements have been achieved for products that already had over 100 years of technical development behind them. For most of those first 100 years, the analysis of turbine blades had concentrated on the behavior of individual blades. A key change, and one of the most significant advances in turbine reliability, was the development and application of analytical techniques that make it possible to characterize and explain the behavior not simply of individual turbine blades, but of entire bladed disk assemblies. Advancements in modal analysis and testing, fatigue analysis, creep analysis, fracture mechanics, aerodynamic theories, and the development of many new materials and manufacturing processes cleared the path for the design of more powerful, more efficient, and more reliable turbines. It became evident that design of blades is a multidiscipline activity. For a proper reliability assessment of a design, one needs to understand many fields of science and these must be applied as need be. These advancements helped designers to extend the capabilities of designs beyond past experience. This also helped to explain past successes and failures of components. The simultaneous development of powerful and inexpensive computers has made it practical to quickly and efficiently carry out the calculations necessary to apply these advanced analytical techniques to the routine design of new and replacement blades and rotors for
industrial steam turbines. Nowhere have these advances had a greater influence than on the design of critical service process compressor drives for the refining and petrochemical industries. Large drivers for ethylene and LNG processes exceeding 75 MW in power are in successful service. Older designs using double-flow exhausts with short, but very strong, blades have been supplanted in newer designs by single-flow exhausts with taller, but more reliable and aero dynamically sophisticated, stages. Inlet pressure and temperatures of 2000 psig/1000°F (140 barg/540°C) have become almost common in new process drive applications.
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