Sunday, May 13, 2018

Chemical Thermodynamics of Materials By Svein Stølen,Tor Grande and Neil L. Allan

Chemical Thermodynamics of Materials By Svein Stølen,Tor Grande and Neil L. Allan
1 Thermodynamic foundations
2 Single-component systems
3 Solution thermodynamics
4 Phase diagrams
5 Phase stability
6 Surfaces, interfaces and adsorption
7 Trends in enthalpy of formation
8 Heat capacity and entropy
9 Atomistic solution models
10 Experimental thermodynamics
11 Thermodynamics and materials modelling
Thermodynamic systems:
A thermodynamic description of a process needs a well-defined system. A thermo dynamic system contains everything of thermodynamic interest for a particular chemical process within a boundary. The boundary is either a real or hypothetical enclosure or surface that confines the system and separates it from its surroundings. In order to describe the thermodynamic behaviour of a physical system, the interaction between the system and its surroundings must be understood. Thermodynamic systems are thus classified into three main types according to the way they interact with the surroundings: isolated systems do not exchange energy or matter with their surroundings;closedsystems exchange energy with the surroundings but not matter; and open systems exchange both energy and matter with their surroundings. The system may be homogeneous or heterogeneous. An exact definition is difficult, but it is convenient to define a homogeneous system as one whose properties are the same in all parts, or at least their spatial variation is continuous. A  heterogeneous system consists of two or more distinct homogeneous regions orphases, which are separated from one another by surfaces of discontinuity. The boundaries between phases are not strictly abrupt, but rather regions in which the properties change abruptly from the properties of one homogeneous phase to those of the other. For example, Portland cement consists of a mixture of the phases b-Ca2SiO4, Ca3SiO5, Ca3Al2O6 and Ca4Al2Fe2O10. The different homogeneous phases are readily distinguished from each other macroscopically and the thermodynamics of the system can be treated based on the sum of the thermodynamics of each single homogeneous phase.


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