Wednesday, May 9, 2018

Electrical Transformers and Power Equipment Third Edition By Anthony J. Pansini

Electrical Transformers and Power Equipment Third Edition By Anthony J. Pansini
1 Theory of Operation
2 Transformer Construction
3 Installation
4 Operation and Maintenance
5 Principal Transformer Connections
6 Other Transformer Types
7 Testing and Troubleshooting
8 Circuit Breakers: Design and Construction
9 Circuit Breakers: Operation and Maintenance
10 Disconnecting Devices
11 Fuses
12 Lightning or Surge Arresters
13 Protective Relays: Design and Construction
14 Protective Relays: Operation and Maintenance
15 Storage Batteries
16 Reactors, Capacitors, Rectifiers
17 Instruments
Events in the electric utility industry in the fast few decades have made knowledge of transformers and power equipment assume even greater importance. In general, the trend has been toward squeezing out every ounce of capacity to achieve a greater efficiency, all increasing the potential for
decreased reliability. Earlier efforts to reduce the demand and consumption of electric energy through load management programs (brought about by the increased cost and difficulty in providing generating facilities), largely through measures affecting consumers:
1. Retrofitting consumers loads with more efficient units; e.g., replacement of incandescent lamps with fluorescent ones.
2. Peak suppression by manipulating consumers’ schedules of operation of specific loads to avoid their coincidence; e.g., clothes washer-dryers not operate at the same time as ranges or air conditioners.
3. Encourage development of cogeneration by large consumers. Cash bonuses, favorable rates, attractive financing, and other incentives employed to accomplish these objectives. Deregulation of utilities that ostensibly replace monopolies with free market competition between suppliers of electric energy further increased pressures for efficiency improvement. Here the tactics employed, mainly by utility managements:
1. Intensification of load management programs.
2. Increase the use and capacity of transmission facilities to deliver low cost power from distant, not necessarily contiguous, sources; e.g., increase line capacities by converting to higher voltages.


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