Friday, August 3, 2018

Hydroelectric Energy Renewable Energy and the Environment By Bikash Pandey and Ajoy Karki

Hydroelectric Energy Renewable Energy and the Environment By Bikash Pandey and Ajoy Karki

Chapter 1 Development of Hydropower
Chapter 2 Basics of Hydropower
Chapter 3 Site Selection and Feasibility Study for Hydropower Projects
Chapter 4 Intake and Diversion Works
Chapter 5 Headrace
Chapter 6 Gravel Trap, Settling Basin, and Forebay
Chapter 7 Penstocks
Chapter 8 Powerhouse
Chapter 9 Hydraulic Turbines
Chapter 10 Impulse Turbines
Chapter 11 Reaction Turbines
Chapter 12 Very Low Head and River Current Turbines
Chapter 13 Electrical Power
Chapter 14 Economic Analysis of Infrastructure Projects
Chapter 15 Participatory Processes in Hydropower Development
Hydropower generates over 1000 GW globally, producing more than 4000 TWh each year, around 16.5% of the world’s total electricity. This makes it by far the largest source of renewable electric
ity when the world is racing against time to combat climate change by greening its energy supply.
Although water wheels were utilized by humans as a source of energy since antiquity, industrial
scale hydropower required the development of modern turbines starting in the first half of the
nineteenth century, building on fundamentals of hydraulic machines spelled out by the great math
ematician, Euler, half a century earlier. Hydroelectricity saw a period of rapid growth starting late
in the nineteenth century with the discovery and proliferation of alternating current, progress in
manufacturing and metallurgy, and breakthroughs in civil engineering, which enabled the construc
tion of large dams. By 1940, over 1500 dams supplied 40% of the electricity in the United States.
Construction of new hydroelectric projects slowed in the 1960s when concerns began to grow about
the social and environmental challenges associated with large dams.
Together with other renewable energy technologies, hydroelectricity has a critical role to play
in the ongoing global transition to clean energy. Although starting from a small base and currently
contributing only a small fraction to the world’s electricity supply, wind and solar energy are grow
ing rapidly, already adding more gigawatts each year than hydroelectricity does. In addition to its
own generation, hydroelectricity helps the growth of all renewables by providing energy storage
as power grids around the world attempt to integrate ever higher percentages of variable renew
able energy. Investment into pumped storage hydroelectricity is expected to grow alongside other
renewables. Hydroelectricity provides an alternative to new investment in coal-based generation for industrializing countries whose power needs are growing rapidly. Coupled with other renewables, hydroelectricity provides these countries a pathway to low-carbon growth. Increased investment
into small hydropower features prominently in planned climate actions of most countries both for supplying their grids and for providing electricity in regions of the countries that remain under electrified. Where resources exist, micro-hydro often provides the lowest cost source of power to remote communities.
The bulk of this book covers the engineering disciplines of civil engineering, hydrology, hydrau
lics, and mechanical and electrical engineering as they relate to hydroelectricity. The authors, Bikash
Pandey and Ajoy Karki, have written different chapters based on their areas of expertise. In addi
tion to technical subjects, they have explored the economics of hydroelectric projects, social and
environmental considerations, and engagement with communities necessary for their development.
Chapter 1 probes the history of water power, the development of hydroelectricity, and its continu
ing relevance today. Chapter 2 goes into the basic physics of how falling water generates power, and
describes the main types of modern hydroelectric systems in use today and their major components.
Chapter 3 describes how site selection and feasibility studies are carried out. Chapters 4 through 8
explain the principles behind how civil structures of hydroelectric plants are designed, including
the intake, headrace, gravel trap, settling basin, forebay, penstock, and the powerhouse. Chapters 9
through 12 explore the design of different types of hydraulic turbines, which are in use and being
developed. Chapter 13 focuses on the electrical aspects of hydroelectricity including the workings of
generators, controllers, and power transmission and distribution. Chapter 14 discusses the economic
analysis of infrastructure projects. Chapter 15 describes the social and environmental challenges of
hydroelectric project and participatory processes required for sustainable development.



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