Wednesday, September 5, 2018

Small hydroelectric engineering practice By Bryan Leyland

Small hydroelectric engineering practice By Bryan Leyland


Contents:
Chapter 1 Introduction
Chapter 2 Scheme identification
Chapter 3 Refining the design
Chapter 4 Detailed design of intake works, canals and penstocks
Chapter 5 Turbine selection
Chapter 6 Generators
Chapter 7 Electrical systems
Chapter 8 Auxiliary plant
Chapter 9 Specifications and contracts
Chapter 10 Powerhouse layout and design
Chapter 11 Construction and commissioning
Chapter 12 Operation
Chapter 13 Lessons from failures

Preface:
Over the last 100 years, the technologies associated with small and large hydropower have steadily diverged with most development being concentrated in the large hydropower field. One outcome is that techniques appropriate for large schemes are often being applied to small schemes with undesirable results in terms of cost and reliability. About 40 years ago the importance of small hydro schemes for supplying isolated systems in the developing world and supplementing or replacing increasingly expensive conventional power sources such as diesel or other fossil fuel fired stations began to be recognised. A more recent development is the concern centred on“climate change’’ that has led many governments to offer large subsidies for small-scale renewable power generation including small hydropower My first involvement in hydropower was in West Africa in 1967 where I was responsible for commissioning a small scheme associated with a water supply dam. I returned
to New Zealand in 1970 and, since then, small hydropower development has been my main occupation. In 1974 I set up a consulting firm that merged with Sinclair Knight Merz in 1998
and I finally retired from full-time employment in 2002. Over that period, we were responsible for many small hydro projects and developed many innovative solutions. There were no experienced designers and fabricators of hydraulic steelwork in New Zealand so we were responsible for detailed designs and shop drawings for equipment such as gates, screen cleaners, penstocks and stoplogs. We also purchased turbines and generators on separate contracts and let contracts for all the power station equipment such as cranes, pumps, cooling water systems, control gear, switchgear, transformers
and then co-ordinated the contracts, supervised erection and commissioned the sta tions. As a result, we built up a broad range of expertise in the technology and in the detail and overall design of hydropower schemes. Since 2002, I have maintained my involvement in hydropower and often reviewed feasibility studies and small hydro stations designed by other consultants in New Zealand and overseas that, to my eyes, had serious shortcomings. This, and my involvement in the repair of stations that had suffered catastrophic failures, made me realisethat Leyland Consultants accumulated experience was a valuable resource that could be of use to many other people around the world. In 2010 I met Janjaap Blom of CRC Press/Balkema at a conference and asked if there was any interest in the book on small hydropower. He responded enthusiastically; this book is the result.

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