Wednesday, April 8, 2020

ELECTRIC SAFETY Practice and Standards By Mohamed El-Sharkawi


ELECTRIC SAFETY Practice and Standards By Mohamed El-Sharkawi

Contents:
 1. Fundamentals of Electricity
 2. Basic Components of an Electric Grid
 3. Physiological Effects of Electricity
 4. Ground Resistance
 5.General Hazards of Electricity
 6. Induced Voltage due to Electric Field
 7.Induced Voltage due to Magnetic Field
 8. De-Energized Line Work
 9. Live-Line Work
10. Arc Flash
11. Atmospheric Discharge
12. Stray and Contact Voltages
13. Electric Safety under Power Lines
14. Coupling between Power Lines and Pipelines, Railroads,
and Telecommunication Cables.
Preface:
Electricity.is.one.of.the.best.forms.of.energy.known.to.man;.it.is.clean,.readily.available,.quiet,.and.highly.reliable..Equipment.powered.by.electricity.is.pollution.free.and.is.more.compact.than.those.powered.by.other.forms.of.energy.such.as.gas.or.oil..Because.of.the.overwhelming.advantages.of.electricity,.it.has.now.become.widely.available.by.just.the.flip.of.a.switch.Since.the.early.days.of.the.electrical.revolution,.electricity.was.recognized.as.hazardous.to.humans.and.animals..Today,.in.spite.of.the.safety.products.available.in.the.market,.more.than.1000.people.are.killed.every.year.in.the.
United.States.alone.due.to.electric.shocks.and.several.thousands.more.are.disabled.or.injured.
Performing. maintenance. work. on. an. electric. grid. is. a. daring. job. that.demands. a. high. degree. of. skill. and. attention.. It. is. therefore. handled. by.highly.trained.linemen.who.deserve.great.appreciation.for.their.dedication.to.maintain.our.light.evn.under.harsh.and.hazardous.conditions.To.protect.the.public.and.workers.from.the.hazards.of.electricity,.several.regulations. and. standards. have. been. developed. to. address. every. electric.
safety.issue.known.to.man.so.far..On.December.29,.1970,.President.Nixon.signed.into.law.the.Occuponal.Safety.and.Health.Act..The.purpose.of.the.legislation.was.to.“assure.so.far.as.possible.every.working.man.and.woman.
in.the.Nation.safe.and.healthful.working.conditions.”.Before.this.legislation.was.implemented,.about.15,000.job-related.fatalities.(not.all.related.to.electricity).were.reported.every.year.in.addition.to.2.5.million.disabilities.and.300,000.cases.of.illnesses.To.administer.the.act,.the.secretary.of.labor.created.a.new.division.in.the.Labor.Department.called.the.Occupational.Safety.and.Health.Administration.(OSHA)..Its.mission.was.to.assure.the.safety.and.health.of.America’s.workers.by.developing.and.enfrcing.standards,.providing.safety.training,.and.improving. safety. and. health. in. the. workplace.. On.May. 29,. 1971,. the.first.group.of.standards.was.adopted.to.provide.baseline.for.safety.and.health.protection.in.American.workplaces.Today,.OSHA.and.its.state.partners.have.over.2000.inspectors.and.more.than.200.offices.throughout.the.United.States..In.addition,.it.uses.the.service.of.engineers,.scientists,.standards.writers,.attorneys,.and.other.technical.and. support.personnel. OSHA’s.Code.of.Federal.Regulation.(CFR).is.a.set.of.standards.that.deals. with. several. job-related. issues. such. as. electric,. mechanical,. and. chemical. safety..The.electric.safety.code.can.be.found.in.OSHA’s.standard.29.CFR.1910. in.sections.such.as.1910-137,.1910-269,.and.1910-302.
The. Institute. of. Electrical. and. Electronic. Engineers. (IEEE). has. sev
eral. working. groups. and. standard. committees. devoted. to. electric. safety..
This organization.has.an.international.outlook,.and.its.work.is.the.collective.
judgment.of.its.members..It.is.therefore.considered.the.source.of.all.stan
dards.worldwide..As.a.matter.of.fact,.OSHA.rules,.in.most.cases,.are.direct.
extractions.from.IEEE.standards.Based.on.my.experience.as.a.safety.consultant.and.expert.witness,.I.find.that.electric.safety.at.worksites.is.often.left.to.field.workers.whose.experience.is.transferred.from.one.generation.to.the.next..Furthermore,.the.safety.procedures. are. often. based. on. having. workers. memorize. a. set. of. rules..Logical. explanation. of. these. rules. may. not. be. provided. to. field. workers.or. be. fully. understood. by. them.. When. a. rule. is. forgotten. or. incorrectly.extrapolated,.hazardous.conditions.occur.at.the.worksite..To.address.this.problem,.electrial.engineers.must.acquire.more.knowledge.in.the.area.of.electric.safety.and.must.be.able.to.enhance.th.training.modality.of.field.workers.and.to.communicate.instructions.clearly.to.them..This.cognitive.
learning. will. certainly. improve. the. safety. at. worksites.. However,. unfor
tunately,. most. power. engineers. are. not. familiar. with. the. electric. safety.
practices.governing.site.works.

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