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__Contents:__

__Contents:__

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__Preface:__

__Preface:__

introduction of electronics. It is broken up into seven modules. Module 1 covers the theory of AC signals.

Since only DC sources are used in the first eBook, details of AC signals such as sinusoidal waveforms (or sine waves),square waves, and triangle waves are provided. Module 2, titled AC Circuits Math Background, covers the mathematics needed for solving AC circuit problems. The background material in Modules 1 and 2 are combined in Module 3 to solve circuits with AC sources with resistors, inductors, and capacitors (RLC circuits).

Note: The term RLC circuit will apply to circuits that contain resistors and capacitor and/or inductors in this eBook. Therefore, the RLC term will also apply to RL and RC circuits.

Module 4 focuses on using RLC circuits as passive filters. Content that is traditionally associated with AC Circuits material ends in Module 4, but additional content is included in Modules 5 to 7 to provide more practical knowledge that builds upon the theory learned in AC circuits. Topics in these final three modules include transformers, diodes, and operational amplifiers. These topics in Modules 5 to 7 are the foundation of the field of electronics.

An important thing to realize is that most of the information covered in DC circuit theory also applies to AC circuit theory. In fact, it is a good idea to think of a DC signal as one that can be obtained by freezing time in an AC signal and looking at the “instantaneous” voltage or current values at that moment in time.

With this in mind, it should be apparent that KVL, KCL, Ohm’s law, and all of the other primary equations used in DC circuits also apply to AC circuits, since the AC circuit is simply a DC circuit that continually changes values. While DC voltage or current signals are typically given capital letter variables (V or I), AC waveforms are given lower case variables and often written as a function of time, v(t) or i(t). In this eBook scalar values that define the different types of AC voltages and currents are given capital letters (Vpk, Ipk, Vpp, Ipp, Vavg, Iavg, Vrms, Irms, and A) as defined in Module 1.

One goal of this book is to provide practical information to better equip the reader to put circuit theory into practice. The picture on the cover of this book shows an example of a RLC circuit built on a breadboard. After the completion of this book you will understand how RLC circuits work and many of the applications they are used for, as well as obtain a foundation in electronics.

When analyzing Direct Current (DC) circuits, calculations and measurements were simplified because the currents and voltages remained at a constant value when the circuit was at steady state. For Alternating Current (AC) circuits, the steady state voltage and current fluctuates in such a manner that the current periodically changes directions in the circuit.

With the signals in the circuit being much more complicated, the analysis of AC

circuits is also at a higher complexity level. An important thing to realize is that most of the information covered in DC circuit theory also applies to AC circuit theory. In fact, it is a good idea to think of a DC signal as one that can be obtained by freezing time in an AC signal and looking at the instantaneous voltage or current values at that specified time.

With this in mind, it should be apparent that KVL, KCL, Ohm’s law, and all of the other primary equations used in DC circuits also apply to AC circuits since the AC circuit is only a DC circuit that continually changes values.

While DC voltage or current signals are given capital letter variables (V or I), AC signals are given lower case variables and written as a function of time, v(t) or i(t).

In this eBook scalar values that define the different types of AC voltages and currents are given capital letters (Vpk, Ipk, Vpp, Ipp, Vavg, Iavg, Vrms, Irms, and A). These AC parameters are defined in sections 1.2 to 1.4.

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